Williams, R., de Rassenfosse, G., Jensen, P.H. and Marginson, S. (2013). “The determinants of quality national higher education systems”, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management
The performance of national higher education systems in 48 countries is measured by 20 variables grouped under the four headings of Resources, Environment, Connectivity and Output. These are then combined into an overall ranking, topped by the United States followed by Sweden, Canada, Finland and Denmark. Countries ranked highest on output tend to be ranked highly on resources. Research output is correlated with government funding, especially expenditure on research and development. The impact of the policy and regulatory environment is also examined.